Perhaps a rare country is blessed with many natural resources, valuable minerals like our Vietnam, and coal is one of those precious minerals. However, the abuse, subjective psychology, dependence on the available mineral resources and improper exploitation have made this mineral resources exhausted quickly without bringing high economic efficiency. for country.
Coal was formed by the compacted traces of plants living in the swamp 250-350 million years ago. This was in the Carbon Period, when primitive animals first appeared on land. Coal formed from traces of ferns and other primitive animals, covered and buried as a new form of rock. Over millions of years, this material turned into coal. Coal is widely used in almost all types of industry but is not renewable.
Vietnam is a country with a potential of all kinds of mineral coal. Low-metamorphic coal (lignite or bituminousume) in the continental part of Song Hong coal basin calculated to 1700m depth has reserves of 36,960 billion tons. If taking into account the depth of 3500m, the total coal resource is expected to reach 210 billion tons.
Medium metamorphic coal (bitume also known as bitumen) has been discovered in Thai Nguyen, Song Da and Nghe Tinh regions with not much reserves, reaching only total resources of nearly 80 million tons.
High metamorphic coal (anthracite) is mainly distributed in coal mines of Quang Ninh, Thai Nguyen, Song Da and Nong Son with total resources of over 18 billion tons. Quang Ninh coal basin is the largest with reserves of over three billion tons. Quang Ninh coal basin has been exploited for more than 100 years to serve the domestic and export demands.
Even so, coal reserves are running out. In 2015, coal mining capacity can meet 96% – 100% of demand. It is forecasted that by 2020, the exploitation capacity will only meet 60% and by 2035, this rate will be only 34%. It is predicted that coal in Vietnam can only be exploited within about 150 years, which is less than the time since France officially invaded our country (in 1858) until now.
“Massive exploitation, disruption of planning, plans, environmental impact assessment have had consequences in the mining industry over time. This not only wastes resources, it also leads to scarcity. rare, resource shortage when Vietnam from a coal exporter has to turn to importing millions of tons of coal / year “. That is the warning of TS. NGUYEN THANH SON, former Head of Strategy Department of Coal-Mineral Industry Group (TKV).
Coal is one of the key mining industries in Vietnam. Coal industry products are also important fuels for many other manufacturing industries. However, with the exhaustion of this valuable mineral, the plan to use imported coal is an inevitable and smart way.